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By 3 January 1880, they were taking evidence in Dundee; they then appointed Henry Law (a qualified civil engineer) to undertake detailed investigations. [3], The bridge was built by Hopkin Gilkes and Company, a Middlesbrough company which had worked previously with Bouch on iron viaducts. Pole's WP article gives a full account of his interest in music and whist but perhaps does not do full credit to his engineering credentials, for which see his obituary at, presumably design calculations had not been kept; presumably this was normal practice, since the Inquiry did not comment on this, the Board of Trade expectation was that tensile stress on wrought iron should not exceed 5 ton per square inch; this gave a margin of at least 4 against failure and about 2 against plastic deformation, p. 184 of "Useful Rules and Tables relating to Mensuration, Engineering Structures and Machines" 1866 edition (1872 edition at, His most developed example was a pane of glass in a signal cabin, In 1871 at Maryhill an NBR train running at 20–25 miles per hour (32–40 km/h) was fouled by a traveling crane on the opposite line: for details of the damage caused see, Yolland and Barlow say that if he had there would have been ample time to put in stronger ties and fastenings, which is difficult to reconcile with the weak point having been the integrally cast lugs, "From ... observations taken at Bidston of the greatest hourly velocity and of the greatest pressure on the square foot during gales between the years 1867 and 1895 inclusive, I find that the average pressure (24 readings) for an hourly run of wind at seventy miles per hour (110 km/h) was forty-five pounds per square foot (2.2 kPa). The bar and sling plates all had a matching longitudinal slot in them. [64], Bouch kept his own 'resident engineer', William Paterson, who looked after the construction of the bridge, its approaches, the line to Leuchars, and the Newport branch. Gilkes, having first intended to produce all ironwork on Teesside, used a foundry at Wormit to produce the cast-iron components, and to carry out limited post-casting machining. 409–410 (Sir Thomas Bouch), Mins of Ev pp. in words of terror spread; Bouch's design for a suspension bridge to take a railway across the Firth of Forth, had been accepted and the foundation stone laid, but the project was cancelled following the Tay Bridge disaster. ‘Twas about seven o’clock at night, And the wind it blew with all its might, And the rain came pouring down, And the dark clouds seem’d to frown, And the Demon of the air seem’d to say- “I’ll blow down the Bridge of Tay.” When the train left Edinburgh The passengers’ hearts were light and felt no sorrow, But Boreas blew a terrific gale, Which made their hearts for to quail, And many of the passengers with fear did say- “I hope God will send us safe across the Bridge of Tay.”. If only the Board of Trade had not conducted its February 1878 safety tests in benign conditions. Staying on the subject of Arrol, the Victorian age could hardly have thrown up a more uncanny genius. [35][note 9] The Dundee stationmaster had passed Robertson's complaint about speed (he had been unaware of any concern about oscillation) on to the drivers, and then checked times from cabin to cabin (at either end of the bridge the train was travelling slowly to pick up or hand over the baton). [97], Baker argued that the wind pressure on the high girders had been no more than 15 psf (0.72 kPa), from the absence of damage to vulnerable features on buildings in Dundee and the signal cabins at the south end of the bridge. It was a hugely significant technical feat and today remains an icon of Scotland. [149][150]): a wind pressure of 30–40 psf (1.4–1.9 kPa) would overturn railway carriages and such events were a rarity. De brug ligt tussen de plaatsen North Queensferry en Queensferry.De brug werd in 1964 voor het verkeer geopend en nam de plaats in van een veerdienst.Er werd tot 2008 tol geheven om de investering in de brug terug te verdienen. [129] Drummond did not think the carriages had left the rails until after the girders began to fall, nor had he ever known a carriage (light or heavy) to be blown over by the wind. Here (producing a specimen) is a nodule of cold metal which has been formed. Ex-provost Robertson had bought a season ticket between Dundee and Newport at the start of November, and became concerned about the speed of north-bound local trains through the high girders, which had been causing perceptible vibration, both vertical and lateral. Airy said that the advice given was specific to suspension bridges and the Forth; 40 psf (1.9 kPa) could act over an entire span of the Tay Bridge and he would now advise designing to 120 psf (5.7 kPa)(i.e. Select from premium Firth Of Forth Rail Bridge of the highest quality. Inquiries were far more immediate and conducted far more efficiently in the late 19th century than the early 21st. North British could now boast of filching a quarter of potential Glasgow to Dundee traffic from its competitor, due to that competitor’s revisiting – and needing to reinforce – no fewer than 28 old wooden bridges supporting its tracks. [159][160][161][162] The stumps of the original bridge piers are still visible above the surface of the Tay. The change in design increased cost and necessitated delay, intensified after two of the high girders fell when being lifted into place in February 1877. Fife. The locomotive was dropped during retrieval, but eventually recovered and returned to service. 88–97 (David Pirie, Peter Robertson, John Milne, Peter Donegany, David Dale, John Evans), Mins of Ev pp. [77] Four of the fourteen lugs tested were unsound, having failed at lower than expected loadings. [51] The foundry foreman explained that where lugs had been imperfectly cast; the missing metal was added by 'burning on'. The man to whom he talked next remembered being told by this witness (Barron) that the bridge was in the river, but not that Barron had seen it fall. The Tay Bridge Disaster occurred during a violent storm on Sunday 28 December 1879, when the first Tay Rail Bridge collapsed as a train from Burntisland to Dundee passed over it, killing all aboard. [15] During the inquiry, John Black testified that the wind was pushing the wheel flanges into contact with the running rail. A court of Inquiry (a judicial enquiry under Section 7 of the Regulation of Railways Act 1871 "into the causes of, and circumstances attending" the accident) was immediately set up: Henry Cadogan Rothery, Commissioner of Wrecks, presided, supported by Colonel Yolland (Inspector of Railways) and William Henry Barlow, President of the Institution of Civil Engineers. [59] That was on the instructions of the resident engineer,[60] who had little foundry experience either and relied upon the foreman. 65–72): Thomas Downing Baxter (speed only), George Thomas Hume (speed only), Alexander Hutchinson (speed and movement) and (p. 88) Dr James Miller (speed only), Mins of Ev pp. This led to difficulties (culminating in clashes) during the Westminster sessions and when the court reported their findings at the end of June, there was both an Inquiry Report signed by Barlow and Yolland and a minority report by Rothery. (To give a subsequent, well documented example, in 1903 a stationary train was overturned on the Levens viaduct but this was by a 'terrific gale' measured at Barrow in Furness to have an average velocity of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), estimated to be gusting up to 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). Yolland and Barlow noted "there is no requirement issued by the Board of Trade respecting wind pressure, and there does not appear to be any understood rule in the engineering profession regarding wind pressure in railway structures; and we therefore recommend the Board of Trade should take such steps as may be necessary for the establishment of rules for that purpose. Please continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates. Windspeeds were normally measured in 'miles run in hour' (i.e. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? [56] According to his predecessor, burning-on had only been carried out on temporary 'lifting columns', which were used to allow the girders to be lifted into place and were not part of the permanent bridge structure. [note 34] The Forth Bridge had a 40 mph speed limit, which was not well observed. The Forth Bridge approach railways were railway lines constructed in the period 1887 to 1890 to form new main lines on the opening of the Forth Railway Bridge. A Section 7 judicial enquiry was felt necessary to give the required degree of independence. Forth Bridge Scottish civil engineer and dad Michael Dineen needs your support to get the iconic bridge into shops as the next Lego box. [16] At that point "there was a sudden bright flash of light, and in an instant there was total darkness, the tail lamps of the train, the sparks and the flash of light all ... disappearing at the same instant. Forth Bridge, Scotland The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge over the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, to the east of the Forth Road Bridge, and 9 miles west of central Edinburgh. His grave can be found in Moffat, Dumfries and Galloway. It was suggested that the last two vehicles (the second-class carriage and a brake van) which appeared more damaged were those derailed, but (said Law) they were of less robust construction and the other carriages were not unscathed. The bolt-maker had gone bankrupt and various disgruntled workmen had alleged that the iron was bad, the bolt-maker’s buyer bribed, and the bolts untested. neither the foundations nor the girders were at fault, the quality of the wrought iron, whilst not of the best, was not a factor, the cast iron was also fairly good, but presented difficulty in casting, the workmanship and fitting of the piers were inferior in many respects. Trial borings had shown the bedrock to lie at no great depth under the river. Yet following this assignment, Thomas Bouch soon became freelance, leaving behind a trail of poor workmanship, fluffed contracts and missed deadlines on the St Andrews Railway, at Leven, East Fife, Crieff Junction, Leadburn, Linton – all over Scotland. On a comical level – can comedy ever emerge from tragedy? Hoewel deze aanval door de Britten 'Forth Bridge Raid' word genoemd, werd de brug hierbij niet beschadigd. [153][154] Condemning the structure, Colonel Yolland also stated his opinion that "piers constructed of cast-iron columns of the dimensions used in this viaduct should not in future be sanctioned by the Board of Trade. Bouch's counsel called witnesses last; hence his first attempts to suggest derailment and collision were made piecemeal in cross-examination of universally unsympathetic expert witnesses. Law had numerous criticisms of the bridge design, some echoed by other engineers: Both Pole and Law had calculated the wind loading needed to overturn the bridge to be over 30 psf (1.4 kPa) (taking no credit for holding-down bolts fastening the windward columns to the pier masonry)[110] and concluded that a high wind should have overturned the bridge, rather than cause it to break up (Pole calculated the tension in the ties at 20 psf (0.96 kPa) windloading to be more than the 'usual margin of safety' value of 5 tons per square inch but still only half the failure tension. One of the piers still remains at the site. [38][note 10] When a train entered the southern high girders the bridge had shaken at the north end, both east–west and, more strongly, up-and-down. To reduce the weight these had to support, Bouch used open-lattice iron skeleton piers: each pier had multiple cast-iron columns taking the weight of the bridging girders. 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