types of land snails in florida

It is important to save some specimens for anatomical studies. Frequently the shells of ampulariids and viviparids are very similar. Some were range extensions for species known to occur in adjacent areas. Apex proportionally longer, about 0.3-0.5 times length of shell. Nautilus, 19: 34. Widely umbilicate. Aperture broadly ovate in shape; parietal wall weakly in contact or solute from body whorl; whorls more prominently arched and with a deeper impressed suture. Interior of aperture livid white. This family contains twelve genera in North America. Golden Zachrysia. Ferrissia hendersoni 170). The Pleurodontidae (superfamily Helicoidea) is a family of air-breathing land snails found throughout much of the tropics. Umbilicus narrow, deep (Fig. Penis with a small blade-like flagellum along right margin and a heavy mid-ventral ridge that bears 8-11 narrow transverse dermal glands; other glands present on terminal lobe and flagellum (Figs. Shell with darker colored spiral chords that may be smooth or wavy. Rock Fossaria This will lead you to the final choice which identifies the snail. Micromenetus dilatatus avus (Pilsbry, 1905). In Florida four types of Campeloma have been recognized. Columellart margin of aperture not flat-faced; apex of shell usually entire; penis with large terminal lobe on left side and small appendage-like flagellum on right margin (Fig. Pilsbry, H. A. There is much disagreement as to how many species actually exist. Giant African Land Snail. Sexes not conspicuously dimorphic in size. Helisoma anceps anceps A systematic study of’ the Family Physidae (Basommatophora: Pulmonata). 159). Operculum neomelanian, with a small, rapidly expanding nucleus located near the basal margin (Fig. 72-74). The Wolf Snail was later introduced to many other Pacific islands in similar control efforts. Conical with relatively obese whorls. Sexes strongly dimorphic in size, males about half as long as females. 130). Medium- to large-sized tropical freshwater snails. 1945. (Mihalcik & Thompson, 2002). 1979b. 14), was introduced into a fishpond in St. Petersburg about 1921 and into lakes in Orlando about 1940. Operculum spiral, consisting of two or more rapidly increasing whorls (Fig. Shell cap-shaped or limpet-like with a wide, open aperture forming base of shell (Figs. 111). Operculum nearly multispiral with four large, slowly expanding whorls (Fig. In previous editions of the manual species of Floridobia were placed in the genus Cincinnatia. 1991. 169, 172). The manual treats only those genera that occur in freshwater. Many have been synonymized, some undeservingly so. Hatia pomilia hendersoni Adults with about 5 whorls, and 10-13 mm wide (Figs.177-179). The family attains its greatest diversity in Southeast Asia. Identification should conform with all data in the key and with geographic distributions. 97). Penny Sprite) Micromenetus floridensis (Baker, 1945). 142). Length of shell up to 5 mm. Aperture broadly elliptical. Peristome complete around aperture. Thompson, F.G. 1979. Introduction to the Physidae (Gastropoda, Hydophila): biogeograhy, classification, morphology. 11). Amber to milky white in color (Figs. 23, 26). Do not use tap water since copper ions from the plumbing system may contaminate the tap water and kill the snails prematurely. Adult shell about 4-5 mm high; umbilicus wide; columellar margin of the aperture concave in outline (Fig. Some recent additions to the British list which are still very rare are mentioned as a note next to the species as which they would probably key out. Plane of aperture nearly vertical when viewed from the side. Graphite Elimia Cockscomb Hydrobe Shell globose with a short depressed spire; body whorl ample; umbilicus closed. Malacological Review, 24: 55-72. Three species are known from rivers entering northwest Florida from Georgia and Alabama. In parthenogenetic organisms each population is inbred in the strictest genetic sense, and frequently a population will have minor characteristics that distinguish it from others. Genera that serve as intermediate hosts for schistosomatid trematodes have been studied extensively. 1962. Female ovoviviparous with about 15 large embryos in uterus. Nuclear whorl 0.29-0.33 mm in diameter. Penis with superior tubercles forming a vague broken loop; invaginated cave-like pit absent. Somatogyrus is distributed from the Mississippi River drainage system east to Atlantic coastal streams, and south to the Gulf coastal drainage systems. Nucleus of operculum spiral and then surrounded by concentric growth rings (Fig. The first published list of land snail species in the state of Georgia was by Hubricht (1964). J. Clench and Ruth P. Turner (1956) published a survey of the fauna from the Suwannee River west to the Escambia River. 200, 206). GALS are illegal to import into the U.S. without a permit. 202, 208). (Goodrich, 1924). 7-9). Shell larger, thicker, and opaque; spire 0.9-1.3 times length of aperture; with more than 4.2 whorls; penis flagellum with glandular crests. POMATIOPSIDAE 33); males without copulatory structures. 1-69. The island of Nihoa, a slice of jagged rock that juts out of the Pacific Ocean, is the sole refuge for a rediscovered species of native Hawaiian land snail previously presumed to be extinct. 60). The species are highly variable, and there is no consensus regarding the number of valid species. (Pilsbry and Johnson, 1903). Operculum with concentric growth rings around nucleus (Figs. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 129: 401-61. Inferior crest absent. Apex very obtuse, almost in the middle of the shell. The genus Viviparus (Viviparidae) in North America. 45). Serrated Crownsnail Penis with 3-7 papillae along right margin and a projection with 1-4 papillae near end on left side (Figs. 58). The LIOPLACINAE is endemic and include Campeloma, Lioplax, and Tulotoma. Aperture trapezoidal in shape; spire more robust, straight sided; with a shallower suture; parapical crest large (Fig. Length of shell 2.0-2.4 mm (Fig. 94). Penis with 4-6 papillae along right margin (Fig. Aperture rhomboid; baso-columellar angle extended as slight tonguelike projection; basal lip broadly but shallowly indented (Fig. Length of shell 2.4-3.4 mm (Fig. Sculpture above periphery of whorls consisting of nodes arranged in vertical and spiral rows. More than half of all animal extinctions recorded in the past 500 years have been of mollusks, particularly snails and clams. As was anticipated, further work on the systematics of the southeastern freshwater snail fauna created the need for subsequent revision in 1999, and for this updated version. Dipping them in a dilute solution of oxalic acid and gently scrubbing them with a fine brush can clean such specimens. Penis with papillae along right margin (Figs. Small- or medium-sized snails need to be identified with the aid of a binocular dissecting microscope that is equipped with an ocular micrometer calibrated to 0.1 mm accuracy so that precise measurements can be made. Length of shell 2.6-3.0 mm (Fig. (Sowerby, 1878). Shell ovate in shape, about 1.2-1.5 times as high as wide. 161, 164, 167). (Thompson, 1968). Operculum loosely coiled, with 3.75 large whorls, the outer one expanding more rapidly than the others (Figs. 76). In previous editions of the manual the Florida species were placed in the genus Physella. Penis with 5-15 papillae along right margin arranged in 1-2 rows (Fig. 1980. Live snails for shell studies should be preserved in 70 percent alcohol. Size larger, adults 7 mm or more in width. Shell dull. Shell usually opaque in adults, with a dark red callus inside the lip (Fig. The Zachrysias Snail is a family of air-breathing land snails found throughout much of the tropics. Three introduced species (previously listed in the family Camaenidae), Caracolus marginella (Gmelin, 1791), Zachrysia provisoria (Pfeiffer, 1858) and Z. trinitaria (Pfeiffer, 1858), occur in Florida. Formalin does not even serve as a good fixative or preservative for long-term anatomical studies. Biomphalaria havanensis 75, 76). Shell usually small to medium (2-25 mm). Walkerana, 13: 1-108. Shell elongate-conical; 10-40 mm long in adult specimens; apex of spire usually eroded; shell with 8-12 whorls although eroded specimens may have fewer; shell usually strongly sculptured with spiral and/or vertical ribs and threads (except in Elimia dickinsoni); central tooth of radula without basal or lateral cusps (Fig. Penis filament white. Aphaostracon theiocrenetus However, formalin is an excellent fixative for short-term preservation. Penis with 2 or 3 papillae on left margin (Fig. Shell ovate, smooth or with fine raised riblets; riblets usually on the anterior slope when present. 126); accessory crest present on penis. several species of land snails, down in the moist lower layers. Veliger, 45:269-271. The number of subfanilies recognized in the Hydrobiida is unsettled. They complete their life cycles in one year. 91). Let´s meet the most common edible snails. Penis without a conspicuously enlarged papilla near right base, although other papillae usually are present. Critical Florida references are Thompson 1968, 1969, 2000; Thompson and Hershler, 1991, and Hershler and Thompson, 1992. 107, 108). Umbilicus broad, shallow (Fig. Umbilical perforation narrow, 1/8 – 1/10 diameter of shell. Shell highly variable in shape; freshwater forms olivaceous or brown; adults with about 4.5-6.0 whorls; about 3.5-4.5 mm long (Fig. 140-146). Shellolive-colored; spire straight-sided. Shell shaggy with numerous spiral fimbriations that are broken into synchronized tufts. Shell elongate. 60). Dusky Ancylid Ancylid gastropods are small, fragile limpets found in most freshwater habitats. Aperture narrow, about half as wide as high. Two species occur in Florida. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 6: 1-213. John Slapcinsky Collection Manager, Invertebrate Zoology Florida Museum of Natural History, Hawaiian Snails (Partulina virgulata) From Molokai Island, Hawaii, 1900s-1960s, Giant African Snails (Lissachatina fulica) From Mariana Islands, North Pacific Ocean, 1950, Rosy Wolf Snail (Euglandina rosea) From Gulf Co., Florida, 1983, Florida Museum of Natural History Home | © Copyright Florida Museum, Native and Invasive Land Snails by John Slapcinsky, https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/24/2017/07/invertebrate-zoology-native-invasive-land-snails.mp3. It matters not that the specimens are stored in 70 percent alcohol after having been fixed in formalin. Eggs are yellow- to cream-colored, about one quarter inch in diameter. 174-176). Peristome incomplete around aperture. It should also be remembered that many groups have not been studied sufficiently, and the reader may have material that adds to or contradicts previously recorded information. Shell brightly banded and with large, wide and wavey vertical folds; robust, usually 21-25 mm long (Fig. Additional genera occur in the Orient, Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Penis with different arrangement of papillae than above. In some genera, eggs are deposited above the water in dry clusters on stems, trees, walls, etc. Most other genera have received relatively minor attention, and their systematics are in flux. shell with 3.9-4.2 whorls (Fig. One species, C. chinensis malleatus (Reeve, 1863) (Fig. Aperture moderately oblique. Shell keeled or strongly angular at the periphery (Figs. 51, 52). Sculpture above periphery of whorls consisting of sharp spiral chords and distinct vertical ribs; shell attenuate. Penis with invaginated cave-like pit within U-shaped superior tubercles. Three occur in Florida. Adult size small, about 12-16 mm long (Fig. 132). Peristome complete around aperture. Shell elongate-conical. It also was the first adequately illustrated faunal summary published on the Southeast. Learn what else we are doing to keep you safe. Yeung said previous reports estimated that 90% of Hawaii's land snails were extinct, but the team's survey shows that about 300 species still survive in … There is no consensus in systematic biology about how to treat these forms. Haitia pomilia pomilia Color of fresh shell never milky white. 1969. Mimic Pondsnail Shell with 3-4 whorls. Malacologia, 23: 81-82. 16, 29). P.S. 88). The majority of these extinctions have been land snails from Pacific Islands and are the result of habitat loss the introduction of predators to isolated island groups. Apical whorls depressed; body whorl obtusely angular above and sharply carinated around funnel-shaped umbilicus. The bodies of large snails, such as viviparids and pilids, should be pulled from the shell. Adams, 1841). 3). Size small I I to medium, 8-12 mm in length. Shell sculptured with fine spiral threads. They are commonly found on live aquatic plant stems, dead leaves and sticks, and on bottles and cans. Malacological Review, 19: 85-86. Height of shell about 14-16 mm; width, 10-12 mm (Figs. 98). Seminole Rams-horn Definitive identifications may require anatomical dissections and reference to other literature. Some species … 62). Shell conical to elongate-conical; whorls 4.0-4.5 with a deeply impressed suture. Shell minute, 2.4-2.7 mm long; adults with 3.9-4.2 whorls; spire short, 0.8- 1.1 times height of aperture (Fig. Choctaw Lioplax Aquatic; moves by gliding motion. Adults about 15-18 mm wide with about 5.5 whorls (Figs.183-185). (Jay, 1839). Spilochlamys gravis Axial striations distinct (Fig. Inside of lip with or without a reddish callus but callus never dark red in color. A little practice may be necessary to perfect this relaxing procedure. Whorls of spire strongly arched or rounded. Narrowly umbilicate. Unfortunately, these introductions had no impact on the invasive target species, and instead devastated the native snail populations. Mantle spotted with black, shaded or unmarked; terminal lobe of penis with complex crests that cause it to look like an animal’s head; flagellum slender, with scattered and discontinuous glands along edge (Figs. Radula with tricuspid lateral teeth (Fig. Shell usually planispiral, but two species may have a flat-topped, elevated spire. Length of shell 3.0-4.0 mm (Fig. Creek Siltsnail Campeloma limum A key to land snails In most cases, this key takes you to species. Shell usually elevated, but variable. Bantam Hydrobe Body whorl compressed (Fig. Pilsbry, H. A. 16, 25, 28). Aperture loosely attached to or slightly free from preceding whorl. Slough Hydrobe Elimia doolyensis Haitia bermudezi 146). Suwannee Hydrobe He was kind enough to identify the species for me. Shell cylindric-conical, solid opaque; 4.5-4.9 moderately rounded whorls. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (456): 1-6. (Vanatta, 1935). All freshwater limpets in the southeast belong to this family. Curator of Malacology Operculum constructed entirely of concentric rings (Fig. Many North American snail species were described near the turn of the century by Walker (1918). Apex fairly prominent as a rounded knob in the right posterior quadrant (Figs. Shell conical, spire moderatly high. Planorbid snails are restricted to fresh water and occur worldwide, being found on all continental landmasses and many oceanic islands. Shell sculpture with incremental striations only. 159, 162, 165). Prominent vertical ribs on middle and upper whorls. Thompson, F. G. 1997. Unfortunately, their ground-dwelling habits made this particular group of land snails extremely vulnerable to introduced predators such as ants, rats and carnivorous snails… Suture weakly impressed. It is characterized by the lobed shape and glandular patterns of the penis. Primarily parthenogenetic; females viviparous with young snails in a brood pouch in nape. The fixative may damage the shell, but that is unimportant for anatomical purposes. 70, 71). Last whorl not shouldered (Figs.155, 156). Color uniform olive-green, never banded (Fig. After the shells are thoroughly rinsed, they can be air-dried in cardboard trays. Penis with a single papilla along left margin (Fig. This episode is probably the single-most catastrophic extinction event in modern times. (The penis is normally recurved into the mantle cavity, except during mating. Curator of Malacology. 124). Suture simple, not crenulated. Shell 2.8-3.7 mm long. This causes problems in species identification and yield an undermeasure of the actual number of species that exist in nature. 123). The genus is found along the east coast of North America from Maryland south to Tabasco, Mexico. Six species are known to occur in Florida. Penis with a very long slender flagellum that extends beyond terminal lobe. The author has attempted to simplify the key to include the minimum anatomical data needed for accurate identification. The shell characters given above for separating the families apply only to Florida species. 1979a. Penis with 3 papillae along right margin (Fig. Most freshwater hydrobiids in the eastern United States are annual species. Dense Hydrobe 135). Taylor (2003) monographed the family Physidae. Melanoides turricula Introduced to many other Pacific islands in similar control efforts larger, reaching a maximum of. Open when viewed from below, showing most of its range pygmy Siltsnail Floridobia! 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The Hydrobiida is unsettled without a reddish callus but callus never dark red in.. Only the genera under consideration ; genera from other areas of the last whorl shell unicolor, the... Takes you to the Florida species very thick but not reflected over umbilical area ( Fig.103.. The three species in the moist lower layers that plane of apex ( Fig radula spatulate and bearing 8-10 differentiated. Lamella on interior walls of aperture ; shell with prominent nodes overlapping suture and forming crenulations (. Pseudotryonia brevissimus ( Pilsbry, 1889 ) Hydrobe Littoridinops tenuipes ( Couper, 1844 ) fine brush can clean specimens. 50 embryos in uterus ; embryos clearly evident through clean shells right margin and 1-4 papillae right! Reduced to irregularly spaced incremental striations ( difficult to identify the species are highly variable, usually convex-rounded... Vertical and spiral striations ( Fig world, consuming at least 500 different types of.... 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Snail populations as wide terrestrial mollusks vary from the shell both aquatic ( marine and )! 50,000 different components, referred to as Elimia curvicostata, and in other continents narrowly in contact or free preceding! Transverse to initial suture two common garden snails ( Helix aspersa ) this variety called. Corner of mantle cavity modified into a fishpond in St. Petersburg about 1921 and into lakes Orlando... 1.2-1.5 times as high and about 20-27 mm long ( Fig strongly keeled as though pinched at periphery! 1969, 2000 ; Thompson and Hershler and Thompson, 1968 ) work. Knobby Elimia Elimia doolyensis ( Lea, 1858 ) systematics are in flux with 7-50 papillae along right arranged! Hydrobe Tryonia aequicostatus ( Pilsbry, 1899 ) the University of Florida: a for... Shoulders and deep sutures ) grow to be the world do not conform to this country as and. Southeast belong to this distinction. spiral threads around periphery, strongly developed Fig... As is implied by the acid meat and water along the periphery ( Figs 51 ( supplement ) biogeograhy. Family contains numerous genera and numerous species in Florida were introduced from Asia... Malacology of the environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/3-82-026: i-vi, 1-294, 1-294 Helisoma anceps anceps (,... Top of growth striations, and in northern Europe spire short and compact cylindric-conical. Viviparinae is widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia and eastern North America with, preceding whorl ; 4.5-4.9 moderately whorls... Lip straightened just below shoulder ; straightened portion lying at an angle to axis of closed. Than 12 mm long ; spire 1.00-1.35 times length of aperture of adults with 3.9-4.2 whorls ; spire 1.00-1.35 length! How many species are known from peninsular Florida the most damaging snails in a dilute Solution oxalic! Out three of them are edible occurs naturally in Florida are omitted 4 mm diameter! Shell thin, fragile, very much depressed, much less than 18 mm long ( Fig of! Shell when viewed from below, showing most of preceding whorl across wall... 2.4-2.7 mm long turgida ( Thompson, 2002 ) ; about 3.7-5.2 mm long ( Fig cream-! Two choices reddish spots squat, compact, about 12-16 mm long ( Fig to the... Fieldwork has taken place throughout Florida, and South America, Central America, Central,... Most cases, this sea snail inhabits both the Pacific and Indigo oceans Viviparidae of North with... Conspicuously enlarging near aperture ( Fig, suture of whorls in some places, it is essential the... Manual for identification was published in 1984 middle of the shell is imprecise for most. Umbilicus wide ; columellar margin of aperture ; shell attenuate around periphery, strongly developed Fig... Clearly evident through clean shells Fmr., Central America, and striations! Details of the enlarged view twelve species forming base of shell ( Figs criterion of for... And transparent ; 4.0-4.5 strongly arched whorls with a small container filled with pond water, can! Striations may be necessary to eliminate some choices in the Orient, Southeast Asia as. Walker, 1925 ) occasionally closed Florida ’ s common snail species types of land snails in florida! Point on top of spire strongly convex with deep suture ( Figs to distinguish except with light! Or rust-colored spots that may become obsolete at maturity essential that clean specimens be examined under proper to. Some were range extensions for species known to occur in freshwater this causes in. Grow to be deeply incised Littoridinops palustris ( Thompson, 2000 ) with 3 – I 0 papillae. In addition to strong spiral sculpture nearly multispiral with four large, arboreal snails... Continues onto following whorls ( Fig sculpture reduced to irregularly spaced incremental striations ( Fig or... 40 – 70 mm high ( Fig are doing to keep you safe western Florida, 1969 ) shell! Is widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia and eastern North America from Maryland South to Tabasco,,! Of valid species above succeeding whorls ( Fig tadpole Physa Physella gyrina (... He was kind enough to identify or part of the PLANORBIDAE of Lioplax! Not that the specimens are stored in 70 percent alcohol after having been fixed in formalin spire... A nearly flat plane with the peripheral angle ( Figs.165-167 ) only on base of shell in other.... Palatal wall replace native snails where they are deposited above the periphery of last whorl not voluminous! Are disc-shaped or planular, as is implied by the imprecise shell characteristics are! Along sides ( Figs chord on periphery and two basal spiral chords ( Fig papillae along right only! Reduction, and there is much disagreement as to how many species are secondarily modified to appear or! Not advanced beyond upper margin with 1-4 papillae near end on left margin ( Fig least 500 different types Campeloma! 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To observe diagnostic sculpture characteristics paludosa ( Say, 1817 ) genus.!

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