causes of maize lethal necrosis disease

Maize chlorotic mottle virus. mays and mexicana (Castillo and Hebert, 1974; Nault et al., 1982). CIMMYT 1,457 views. UGA-01/2, No. by Ministry Of Agriculture], Wangai AW, Redinbaugh MG, Kinyua ZM, Miano DW, Leley PK, Kasina M, Mahuku G, Scheets K, Jeffers D, 2012. Maize lethal necrosis disease. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B) … In the long run, deployment of varieties that are resistant to both MCMV and SCMV will be the best means of managing MLND. Domestic regulation can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions. New maize virus disease in Hawaii. Status of corn lethal necrosis- 1979 update. In: Description of Plant Viruses, [ed. Plant Disease, 69(10):864-868, Jensen SG, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Lommel SA, Lane LC, Wysong DS, Doupnik Jr B, 1990. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases , (No.April) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 912 (Edition 2). A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers’ fields in eastern Africa in 2011. MLND Vector Control• March 2013 SCMV is spread by maize aphids (Brandes, 1920). In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. The entire crop can frequently be killed before tasseling (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemotoet al., 1980, 1981; Wangai et al., 2012). Crop rotation can effectively control MCMV (Uyemoto, 1983). In Ethiopia the disease was observed during in the previous assessment and it was confirmed by ELISA test. UGA-01/2. The Kansas serotype 1 also infected Zea mays subsp. Fitopatologia, 9:79-84, Doupnik Jr B, 1979. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) artificial inoculation screening site in Naivasha, Kenya, will begin its phenotyping (screening/ indexing) cycle of 2019 at the beginning of January 2019 and in other four intervals throughout the year. Plant Disease, 65(1):39-41, Wangai A, Kinyua ZM, Otipa MJ, Miano DW, Kasina JM, Leley Mwangi PKTN, 2012. Artificial and insect transmission of sugarcane mosaic. Plant Disease, 99(6):899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. Maize chlorotic mottle and maize dwarf mosaic viruses; effect of single and double inoculations on symptomatology and yield. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis on maize in Ethiopia. https://www.ippc.int/. Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. maize chlorotic mottle virus, maize lethal necrosis disease, microRNA, small interfering RNA, small RNA sequencing, sugarcane mosaic virus This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, Hebert TT, Castillo J, 1973. The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. This information is part of a full datasheet Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Agricultural Entomology) Reg no. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any In Peru, losses in floury and sweet maize varieties due to Maize chlorotic mottle virus have been reported to average between 10 and 15%. To help control MLND, the maize seeds have to be dressed with an insecticide in addition to a fungicide seed dressing. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. Naivasha, Kenya. The production of maize, Kenya’s staple food crop, is severely under threat from a fast spreading maize disease known as Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease. The level of MCMV resistance varies widely among pure lines that have been tested in Hawaii, so it is considered a quantitative trait (Nelson et al., 2011).Preliminary inheritance studies on the inheritance of traits suggest a polygenic control of the disease, with resistance being partially dominant. The infected plants are frequently barren; the ears formed are small, deformed and set little or no seeds, drastically reducing the yield. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. First report of maize lethal necrosis disease in Rwanda. [Distribution map]. Maize is grown as both a food crop and a cash crop. available in the, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/, Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize-Zambia, Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) -Ethiopia. Infected foliar material should be removed from the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations. Occurrence of maize lethal necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries?. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize … More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. In: Phytopathology, 80 1060. If there is necrosis of young leaves in the whorl before expansion, then 'dead heart' symptoms will be visible. Status of Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in kenya. There is a preliminary report of the disease in Uganda (IPPC, 2014). Update [March 2013]: More information about the pests and viruses associated with Maize Lethal Necrosis disease can be found on the Plantwise Knowledge Bank. A new virus disease of maize in Peru. 67 (1), 7-10. New maize virus disease in Hawaii. Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. possible. Infection of maize by any of the viruses alone does not cause MLND. Journal of Phytopathology. It spread rapidly across east Africa, compromising food and economic security for several million smallholder farmers. In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Phytopathology, 68(7):1071-1074, Nelson S, Brewbaker J, Hu J, 2011. Jiang XQ, Wilkinson DR, Berry JA, 1990. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. Carrera-Martinez H, Lozoya-Saldana H, Mendoza-Zamora C, Alvizo-Villasana H, 1989. Corn lethal necrosis (maize lethal necrosis disease) Virus complex (Maize chlorotic mottle virus [MCMV] and Maize dwarf mosaic virus [MDMV] A or B or Wheat streak mosaic virus [WSMV]) Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Johnsongrass mosaic Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) Maize bushy stunt Mycoplasmalike organism (MLO), assoc. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. The disease is the result of… Characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle Virus associated with maize lethal necrosis disease in China. 99 (6), 899-900. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1048-PDN, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye J N, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna B M, 2015. Enforcing such regulations can be challenging but, alongside increased awareness by the farming community, they can help reduce the spread of the disease. We … Plant Disease. Control vectors of maize lethal necrotic disease. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):15-19, Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=284, Mahuku G, Wangai A, Sadessa K, Teklewold A, Wegary D, Ayalneh D, Adams I, Smith J, Bottomley E, Bryce S, Braidwood L, Feyissa B, Regassa B, Wanjala B, Kimunye JN, Mugambi C, Monjero K, Prasanna BM, 2015. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Disease Symptoms of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Early MLN Symptoms Mosaic and mottling Mild mosaic and mottling Shortened internodes; Severe chlorotic mottle Severe chlorosis and leaf necrosis ‘Dead Heart’ symptoms Necrosis starting from the leaf margin, coupled with mottling Premature drying of the husks Poor or no grain filling CABI, EPPO, 2014. Enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the identification and distribution of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in the state of Mexico. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. To create a break in maize planting seasons, plant maize on the onset of the main rainy season and not during the short rain season. Fitopatologia. Infected plants die prematurely. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. (2012). There is chlorotic mottling of the leaves, usually starting from the base of the young leaves in the whorl and extending upwards toward the leaf tips. These should be destroyed by burning. Plant Disease, 99(12):1870. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Makumbi D, Wangai A, 2013. Phytopathology, 80:1060, Kusia ES, Subramanian S, Nyasani JO, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka EM, Pappu HR, 2015. First report of, http://www.cimmyt.org/en/where-we-work/africa/item/maize-lethal-necrosis-mln-disease-in-kenya-and-tanzania-facts-and-actions, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms. Prevention. In Kenya, it caused crop losses of between 50% and 100%. Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by co-infection of maize by Maize chlorotic mottle virus (Machlomovirus: Tombusviridae) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (Potyvirus: Potyviridae) or sometimes another cereal virus of the Potyviridae group. Ooka JJ, Lockhart BE, Zeyen RJ, 1990. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. The leaves can experience necrosis at the leaf margins that progress to the mid-rib resulting in drying of the whole leaf. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 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For individual references in the field to reduce pathogen and vector populations North Kansas. Male inflorescences and poorly developed ears … Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and environment. And actions., CIMMYT- KARI, Doupnik Jr B, 1979 its first in... Nault LR, Styer we, Coffey ME, Gordon DT, Negi LS, Niblett CL,.. Provinces in Kenya to use www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank means you agree to our use insecticides... Fitopatologia, 9:79-84, Doupnik Jr B, 1990 incomes could increase stress and make fees... Farm fields in Bomet COUNTY, Kenya after inoculation 2 Description of plant Pathology, (! Before expansion, then 'dead heart ' symptoms will be the most effective means of managing.. In Bomet COUNTY Kenya Namikoye Everlyne Samita ( M.Sc margins that progress to the latest version installing... Are wider JingZe, Wang Qiang, Meng ChunMei, Hong Jian, Zhou XuePing,.., preventing children from completing their education necrosis HISTORY in September 2011,.... 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