It is clear, as shown in figure 1 below, that different researchers have proposed different traits and there is no consistency in trait theories. Vroom and Jago (2007) refer to heroic concepts of leadership which they argue emerged with the great man theory of history whereby major historical events were assumed to be the work of great men with vision and genius. Trait-based perspectives of leadership. These are directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Judge, T., Bono, J., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M. (2002). Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Constructive/Developmental Analysis. Their approach was based off of a 1967 article by W.J. (1999). CONCLUSION A review of leadership theories shows a progression from great man and trait theories to new leadership theories including transformation and transaction theories. A summary of these theories is shown in table 1 (Appendix 1). “Great Man” Theories:(1900-1940) Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is a basic – that great leaders are born with innate qualities, not made and intended to lead. From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. ‘’The process of influencing others to understand an… Work, 29(4), 351-356. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that no traits are universally associated with effective leadership and argue that situational factors are also influential. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp.285-305. New patterns of management. In addition to being a business consultant in Dallas-Ft. Worth, Elijah is a husband, dad, veteran, author, speaker, and professor of business and marketing. Leadership Theories: The Conclusion These are some of the main leadership theories being used in the corporate world today. Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that this simply means that transactional leaders give followers something they want in return for leaders getting what they want. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. The social psychology of organizations. Interactional Leadership Theories (1970-Present) The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behaviour is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation. Theory and practice of leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), pp.9-32. (2014). Proponents of these theories argue that leaders possess traits or characteristics that make them different from other people and give them leadership advantage. Blake, R. and Mouton, J. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. (1978). In order to inspire, innovative, and produce creativity within an organization, leaders should be aware and mindful of their followers’ perception of them. Kilmann, R. and Thomas, K. (1977). Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), pp.19-31. Looking for a flexible role? When we look at the le… Leadership behaviour theory is leading theory that the reaction in certain circumstances observable behavior and leaders and followers. A person becomes a leader because of his personal qualities. You can view samples of our professional work here. Behavioural Theory After trait theory, there was a big jump to the behavioural theory; it assumes that leadership can be learned, not intrinsic. Proponents of transformational theory including Bass (1985, 1991) and Avolio and Bass (1995) define transformational leadership in terms of the leader’s effects on followers and argue that transformative leaders have exceptional influence over followers whose feelings of trust, admiration, trust and loyalty towards the leader motivates them to make self-sacrifices, commit to difficult objectives and achieve much more than is expected of them. Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) refer to transformation theories as charismatic theories and argue that they emphasise different leader behaviour than that emphasised by earlier theories of organisational leadership. Leadership and decision-making. (2011). (1995). Bass (1999: 10) defines transactional leadership as “the exchange relationship between leader and follower to meet their own self interests”. An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. McClesky (2014) similarly states that situational leadership theory (Hershey and Blanchard, 1984) has flaws related to consistency, continuity and conformity. Essay on Leadership # Theories of Leadership (Essay 5) Some of the popular theories of leadership are: (i) Trait Theories: Trait is the personal quality of an individual. The learner had to identify and compare four theories of leadership.The theories selected to analyze by the learner are contingency, behavioral, transformation, and transactional. Bryman (2013) has criticised the Management Grid for its emphasis on one best way of managing organisations. Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. Contingency theories of leadership explain the factors on which it has to depend to produce best performance; these factors could be either internal or external. My personal preference is the "participative leadership style" and the most likely choice for me to use when in … Developing a Forced-Choice Measure of Conflict-Handling Behavior: The “Mode” Instrument. https://elijahclark.com/conclusion-leadership-theories/. (2008). (1972). 1. The attempt to identify the skills and tactics of different leaders will always be an interesting study but there is no one true way to be a leader. A theory of leadership effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1434-1452. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0034, McCleskey, J. London: Routledge. Conclusion There are many theories on leadership and even within these theories, there are always variables that must be considered. Trait theory believes that successful leader has certain personal characteristics. Managing Your Business Using Loyalty, Relationships, and Engagement. Executive, 5(2), pp.48-60. http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/luisrodrigues/textos/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf. A. doi:10.1177/0149206307308913, Graeff, C. L. (1997). Research shows that each of these theories has its strengths and weaknesses and there is no ideal leadership theory. Behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born. (2013). Hershey and Blanchard (1984) present four leadership styles including directive, consultative, participating and delegating which are related to the readiness (maturity) of followers, for instance, leaders will adopt a directive style in a situation where followers lack readiness or the ability and confidence to perform a task. Mann (1959) includes masculinity, dominance, adjustment, conservatism and extroversion in his list of traits. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130. Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). Storey (2004) states that proponents of cognitive theories include Fiedler (1967), Vroom and Yetton (1973), Yukl (2002) and Hershey and Blanchard (1984). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. This leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on intellectual qualities or personality traits. Conclusion Of Leadership Style Leadership Styles During my coursework learning about the variety of leadership styles, I have been able to take something positive away from each style. My four latest blog post (authentic leadership, situational leadership, servant leadership, leader member exchange) have evaluated the nature of leadership styles and their theories. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Get your paperback, digital, or audio copy of my latest book from all major book stores. Rafferty, A. and Griffin, M. (2004). Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) state that reviewers have labelled the approach as too simplistic, futile, dangerous and a product of self-delusion. For instance, Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) argue that the six traits that distinguish leaders from non-leaders include drive, desire to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability and business knowledge. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Other researchers have also argued that trait theories have failed to consider situational nature of leadership (Zaccaro, 2007; Vroom and Jago, 2007). Abstract Leadership styles and theories are essential to an organization’s structure, culture, and development. It is also interesting to note that despite the vivid difference between culture and leadership, the organization has been able to merge both in so many areas. Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. Business Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. Great man theories evolved into trait theories in the early 20th century (Judge et al., 2002; Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991). The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), pp.199-218. Organization Science, 4(4), pp.577-594. New York: Wiley. Bryman, A. Bass (1991) states that transformative leaders are able to achieve these results through behaviours including individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation, charisma and inspirational motivation. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Leadership Theories &Their Contemporary Application Unlike researches that have a drawn conclusion and obtainable and quantifiable result, leadership a human behavior or a set of attributes not easily quantifiable has been the interest of many researchers and scholars. Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important or more important than formal influence. According to Storey (2004), the 1980’s saw the development of new leadership theories promoting the concept of transformation, visionary, charismatic and inspirational leadership. Yukl, G. (1999). (1978). (1964). Academy of Management Review, 12(4), pp.648-657. ADVERTISEMENTS: Leadership is a virtue coveted by many but possessed by a few. This is a weakness that has been identified by other researchers including Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) and Yukl (1999). Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Leadership in organizations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(1), pp.19-34. (2014). Even though every member of the orchestra can play perfectly by themselves, they will only produce an incompatible melody in the absence of a conductor. Leader-member Exchange and Creative Work Involvement: The Importance of Knowledge Sharing. These researchers have argued that situational variables impact on leader behaviour, effectiveness and consequences. All work is written to order. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), pp.347-381. As for theories of leadership that suggest leaders are born, it should be emphasized that leaders can certainly also be made. These researchers state that while earlier theories focused on leader/follower exchange relationships, providing direction, support and reinforcement behaviours, charismatic theories emphasise symbolic leader behaviour, visionary and inspirational messages, non verbal communication and appeal to ideological values. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Behavioural theories as advocated by these researchers identified four styles of leadership behaviour: concern for tasks (production or output), concern for people, directive leadership and participative leadership. 411-432). American Sociological Review, 37(2), p.117. This researcher also claims that empirical studies have produced mixed results on the effectiveness of the Grid and argues that there is need to have information on other variables such as management and organisation change programs before definitive conclusions can be made on the effectiveness of the model. 1st Jun 2020 Company Registration No: 4964706. Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders. Retrieved from http://ijms.ut.ac.ir/, Klenke, K. (2007). Zaccaro, S. (2007). Summarize the Conclusions of Trait Theories of Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Available at: http://www.jameslconsulting.com/documents/GreatManTheory.pdf. Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. Gill (2011) claims that contingency theories like Fiedler’s (1967) model and path-goal theory which develops Fielders contingency theory have been criticised for inconsistent results and measuring problems. What exactly makes a great leader? In my previous post solely looking at the behavioral theory of leadershipI implied that … Blake and Mouton (1964) argue that it is possible for managers to learn in a classroom and revise their practices and procedures thereby moving towards an ideal 9, 9 (team management) organisational environment. A leader is crucial to the success of every team. Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that Bass’s (1985) model of transactional and transformation leadership is based on the model developed by Burns (1978) and argue that this model lacks an explanation of the internal processes which lead to the development of the actions of transformational and transactional leaders, in other words, neither Burns (1978) or Bass (1985) has “provided a framework for understanding the motivational states or personality differences that give rise to these two types of leadership” (Kunhert and Lewis, 1987: 648). New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://www.regent.edu, Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J.D. New York: Free Press. It has been in use only for about two hundred years, although the term leader, from which it was derived, appeared as early as A.D. 1300 (Stogdill, 1974). Hoffman, B., Woehr, D., Maldagen-Youngjohn, R. and Lyons, B. These researchers state that traits only provide the potential for leadership and additional factors including skills, vision and implanting the vision are necessary for effective leadership. Similarly, situational leadership can be generalized into three steps. Psychological Bulletin, 56(4), pp.241-270. The managerial grid: key orientations for achieving production through people. According to Gill (2011) contingency theories suggest there is no one best way of leadership because successful leaders use different styles depending on the nature of the situation and the followers. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(2), 153-170. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90014-X, Graen, G.B. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), pp.76-93. Understanding leadership style can help a company build a foundation that can lead to improved productivity, employee retention, and improved employee relations. Situational Leadership(R) After 25 Years: A Retrospective. 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