For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click We are grateful to Dale Purves, Fuhui Long and Emma Byrne for commenting on previous drafts of the manuscript. This could be achieved by weighting the interaction between the luminance channel and the colour opponent channels according to the relationship experienced between the retinal image and reflectance. “When you have a significant amount of white being used, the red, green, and blue primary [colors] might be half as bright as they’re supposed to be, or more.”, For an end-user or AV professional, the color quality of a projector’s image might not be apparent until the projector is already in use. The responses of human V1 therefore more closely reflected the brightness than the physical luminance. Here, however, the psychophysical and neuroimaging data presented cannot be accounted for by any changes in the spatial context of the stimulus. This last class of models produced residual root-mean-squared errors in the range 0.001–0.062, showing that 3 Gaussian components allow the hyperspectral data to be modelled very closely. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. We define an image as the retinal photoreceptor response to light that reaches the eye, and perception as the conscious or behavioural response to the image. Bottom row: Blue standard (left), equiluminant low-saturated blue (middle), and equally bright low-saturated blue (right) annuli used in the second fMRI experiment; again the relative response of primary visual cortex (V1) of two subjects to these stimuli are indicated on the right (S2, S3). While a more sophisticated model could interpolate between several close examples, such as with a k-nearest neighbour classifier, any such interpolation would require making further assumptions about the statistics of scenes, stimuli and perception. No, Is the Subject Area "Vision" applicable to this article? Affiliation Ex:comparing the amount of blue light and red light coming from Sirius, scientist can measure how much blue light it emits rather than red. Church helps congregants hear via Wi-Fi with Listen EVERYWHERE from Listen Technologies. One constraint is that luminosity is defined in terms of observed long- and medium-wavelength sensitive cone responses (L- and M-cones); we therefore limit ourselves to three-cone models in these experiments. Funding: Work partially supported by European Union grant 27731. ‘blues’ and ‘reds’ appear brighter than ‘greens’ and ‘yellows’ at equiluminance) ; –. This range was used for each cone activation function, for the luminosity values and for the reflectance scores. Error bars indicate one standard error. Taken together, these results show a strong qualitative similarity between our Bayesian ideal observer and human perception vis-à-vis the HK effect. This only slightly improved with much larger training sets, presumably due to metamerism as discussed above. By comparing a stars apparent brightness in two different colors of light. Data were analysed using SPM2 (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm) and MrGray . Measures of responsiveness to spectral stimuli (such as cone absorption spectra and tests of threshold detection as a function of spectral composition) all show that the human visual system is less sensitive to long and short wavelength light than to light of middle wavelengths , . UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom, Affiliation ACCORDING TO COLOR SCIENTIST Karl Lang of Lumita, a network of technology and marketing resources for the digital imaging industry, new technology in projectors has created a hole in the color specifications standards by altering the contents that brightness metrics were meant to measure. The training set SRFs are still a mixture of 3 Gaussians as before, but here one component is forced to be centred at either 450 nm (“blue”) or 650 nm (“red”) for each surface. In a further experiment, the yellow annuli were replaced with less-saturated blue annuli that were either equiluminant with, or seen as being equally as bright as, the saturated blue annulus. Correlated with this conscious change in brightness are changes in the activation of cells in V1 in retinotopic register with the target ; –. No, Is the Subject Area "Visible light" applicable to this article? e5091. Yes This brightness difference is expressed as a ratio ranging from 1:1 (e.g The variance of the wavelength is a parameter of the Gaussian functions described above. Error bars indicate 1 standard error. However, due to the lower sensitivity of the retina to shorter wavelengths, the stimuli arising from the two objects elicit very different luminance signals. The root-mean-squared (RMS) error between the predicted and true reflectance was then calculated, after both had been standardised to the range 0–1. The L- and S-cone sensitivities remain unchanged throughout. First, we introduce a coloured filter to the ideal observer. Yes The ideal observer predictions of reflectance for different dominant wavelengths, grouped by low (L, 0.013), medium (M, 0.051) and high (H, 0.14) luminance values. We used this mean as the physical correlate of hue. This is the sum of long- and medium-wavelength cone activity, weighted in proportion (approximately) to their existence in the retina . it is independent of this particular scene statistic. For each spectra, we used the Matlab Curve fitting toolbox (v. 1.1) to fit 1, 2 or 3 Gaussian components using a least-squares optimisation. The latter gives a score of zero for uniform stimuli – corresponding to human percepts of grey, black and white – and larger scores for SPDs with “narrower” peaks. All data were generated and analysed using Matlab (v.6.5). Put simply, red and blue spectral stimuli appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli, and more saturated stimuli appear brighter than less saturated stimuli, because the former in both cases would have signified more reflective surfaces in the past. Fremont, CA – December 7, 2020 – Blackmagic Design announced today that Grammy award winning Anderson .Paak’s recent live concert was shot using Blackmagic URSA Mini Pro 4.6K G2, Pocket... © 2020 Sound & Video Contractor is part of Future plc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. Thus changing the statistical relationship between the scenes and images (the retinal responses), by introducing a filter “in front of” the receptors during training and then removing it, leads to a fundamental change in brightness. Figure 7 shows three spectral power distributions (SPD), coloured using an RGB mapping. The handheld T-10A and T-10MA are designed for easy use to measure the quality and brightness of a light source as it lies along a surface. We therefore used this as a physical correlate of saturation. “Right now, the only way to [measure color brightness] is to get the projectors and look at each of them.”. In half the records, one Gaussian component was forced to have a centre at 450 nm, and in the other half, it was forced to be at 650 nm. Both cases show that even a substantial shift in the M-cone response function has little effect on the predicted reflectance of the stimulus: the HK effect remains. Published: March 3, 2008. This image was viewed through a front-coated mirror with near-flat spectral reflectance profile. For five hyperspectral natural images , we randomly sampled 1000 pixels, making a total of 5000 natural spectra, each sampled at 10 nm intervals. The CIE coordinates of the blue standard were Y = 2.6; x = 0.154; y = 0.107); of the equiluminant yellow stimulus were Y = 2.6; x = 0.357; y = 0.438; and of the equally-bright yellow annulus were Y = 3.6; x = 0.362; y = 0.470. In the experiments described below, we first build a simple model of natural scenes, retinal responses (‘images’) and predicted reflectances (‘perception’), and show that it corresponds to human perception of the brightness of colours. For this final case (Figure 4B) the scores are 0.0387, 0.0650, and 0.0784 respectively, showing that the predicted reflectances vary much less with wavelength (about half as much) in this final experimental case. Stars that are closer to the Earth seem brighter compared to stars far away from Earth. To complete our model of natural scenes, we model the illumination of the synthetic surfaces just described with natural daylight, as defined by the CIE “standard illuminant” D65. It describes the properties of light related to hue and saturation, but not luminance (brightness). “DLP promotes standards that are adopted by true governing bodies and open to accurately measure all imaging technology on the market,” says Kateri Gemperle, manager of worldwide media relations for Texas Instruments DLP Products. The standard deviation of the intensity (y-axis) of the three curves are the physical correlates of the perceived saturation of the corresponding spectra, with the highest on the left and the lowest on the right. The M-cone peak sensitivity is now 505 nm on both training and test sets, instead of the usual 545 nm. We conclude that the HK effect of the ideal observer is largely independent of the distribution of the dominant wavelength in the historical training sample, i.e. In the first experiment stimuli comprised of three different patterns were presented within a smoothed annular window centred on fixation that subtended from 3° to 7°. Equation 5 in reference  gives the energy-based function, equivalent to V(λ) = 0.64315 L(λ)+0.39595 M(λ). Any Bayesian ideal observer works in several stages . Light color, or color temperature, is measured using the Kelvin scale. Note also that the model does not incorporate adaptation in response to each stimulus' brightness or colour. the results shown in Figures 2B and 3) are 0.0689 (±0.023), 0.1159 (±0.023) and 0.1542 (±0.044). Right: A darker yellow object reflects less light but generates the same luminance signal as the blue object. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this ‘illusion’ to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. The color brightness specification Color Light Output measures red, green, and blue each on a nine-point grid, using the same approach as that used to measure brightness. Recalling that the luminous efficiency function peaks near the centre of the visible spectrum , this decreasing saturation can only lead to an increase in luminosity. Brightness is practically impossible to measure objectively. The HK effect has been measured in a variety of psychophysical studies – and is often expressed in terms of the (variable) ratio between brightness and luminance. The company hired Lang as a consultant to take the reigns of the project in June 2007. Therefore the human visual system predicts that the more saturated surface is brighter than the other surface, as reported in the literature , , ,  and as shown by our model. A simple example of this phenomenon is shown in Figure 1. Figure 3A shows the resulting predictions of reflectance as the test hue varies, for constant luminance scores. For comparison, the previous “default” results are shown using dotted lines. The W3C working draft on accessibility has a formula for the perceived brightness of a color (based on the YIQ color system): ((Red value X 299) + (Green value X 587) + (Blue value X 114)) / 1000 This formula and references to it dominate the search results, probably because the W3C has high search engine rank. The spectral properties of the stimuli were individually measured in situ from the screen using a photo-spectrometer (PR-650 SpectraScan). Luminous efficiency, or luminosity, measures the effect that light of different wavelengths has on the human visual system. a synthetic surface under D65 illumination) we calculate the response vector c for long-, medium- and short-wavelength human cones: . The current study demonstrates that contextual effects on brightness are due to the visual system's attempts to identify the most probable source of ambiguous image data. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Yes purer in colour) appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. (See Methods, “Retinal responses” for further details.) For comparison, the previous “default” results from Figure 2B are shown using dotted lines. Furthermore, the cone response functions c and the surface reflectance R (scenes) together define the joint probability distribution in equation (2). Luminous efficiency, or luminosity, measures the effect that light of different wavelengths has on the human visual system. While arguing for a potential retinal locus for these interactions, these authors also highlighted previous studies showing colour-luminance interactions at the level of single V1 cells –. In the past, we bought lightbulbs based on how much energy, or watts, they use. Together, these and other related studies in other visual qualia ,  suggest that early, non-linear interaction between opponent channels evolved not to encode the physical attributes of stimuli per se, but to encode the statistical relationship between stimuli and their past empirical sources, manifesting itself in this case as colour brightness. This can then be embedded in an ecologically-relevant synthetic environment, where experience can be perfectly controlled and behaviours unambiguously measured. To model the resulting retinal response arising from each scene (i.e. In contrast, the cortical responses to annuli matched for brightness were nearly identical, despite the physical difference in their luminance (an identical pattern of responses was also found in area V4; data not shown). A Siemens Allegra 3T scanner with standard head coil was used to acquire Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast functional MRI EPI volumes with 32 axial slices at an isotropic resolution of 3×3×3 mm (TR = 2080 ms; TE = 30 ms; flip angle 90°). In this way ‘scene space’ was uniformly sampled, which means the prior probability for all surfaces is equal. Translucent objects are not easy to measure since any variations in their thickness or background will affect their color. All stimuli were viewed against the same black surround, making chromaticity the only contextual parameter to luminance (luminance being determined by spectrophotometric measurement). The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. We use the published estimated reflectance spectra of random portions of the scenes. Stimuli were presented using an LCD projector (NEC LT158) with a frame rate of 60 Hz that projected onto a screen at the head-end of the scanner. Suppose we then decrease the saturation by steadily “whitening” the SPD, while keeping the total energy of the light (as shown by the area under the SPD curve) constant. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. To quantify the degree of this flattening, we can calculate the sample standard deviation of the predicted reflectance scores for each experiment. Changing the radiance of the surround of an achromatic target changes the brightness of that target. is a direct consequence of specifically the statistics of scenes). PLoS ONE 4(3): Conversely, this model cannot reliably extrapolate in response to novel stimuli beyond its past experience. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. Update my browser now. any discrepancy between R and, must be due to insufficient information contained in the cone responses c, or insufficient data in the sample of previous observations used to estimate the distributions. And finally, the maximum of this function is identified as the optimal prediction of the target variable(s). To calculate this, at each wavelength λ, we multiply the value of the SRF by the proportion of D65 at that wavelength. We use these new cone sensitivities to define the ideal observer's images for both the training set and the test set. One parallel in the natural world is the presence of oil droplets in the cone cells of many species of birds, which act as long pass filters  and effectively alter the cell's peak sensitivities. In short, color is the visual byproduct of the spectrum of light as it is either transmitted through a transparent medium, or as it is absorbed and reflected off a surface. Because a large fraction of the mid-spectrum light is attenuated by the filter during training, a stronger stimulus is now required at these wavelengths to generate the same luminance. Subjects were presented with the three coloured annuli shown in Figure 5: (1) a blue ‘standard’ annulus having the maximum saturation and luminance generated by a typical LCD projector; (2) an equiluminant saturated yellow annulus; and (3) an equally saturated yellow annulus whose intensity could be adjusted by each participant to match the brightness of the blue standard. According to color scientist Karl Lang of Lumita, a network of technology and marketing resources for the digital imaging industry, new technology in projectors has created a hole in the color specifications standards by altering the contents that brightness metrics were meant to measure. As before, the correlation between saturation and predicted reflectance was still significantly positive (r≈0.95; p<10−13). Brightness has been defined as the perceived intensity of a visual stimulus, irrespective of its source. Finally, in this model we assume that brightness is the visual system's estimate of the amount of light reflected from a surface. Therefore, to produce synthetic SRFs that are naturalistic while also being relatively straightforward to control and interpret, we use a mixture of Gaussian basis functions. When examining or measuring an object for color and appearance, it is important to categorize it as an opaque nonmetal, opaque metal, transparent material, or translucent material. To understand this, consider the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the light reflected by a highly saturated “blue” surface. A scene is the physical structure of the world as described by the spectral properties of light emitted or reflected from objects in the world. A set of 10,000 such spectra was used covering the whole range of monochromatic wavelengths, with different intensities and saturations. Together, these observations demonstrate that the shape of a stimulus' spectral distribution (in addition to its spatial information) can be described as providing a ‘context’ for its perceived intensity. During the subsequent test, without the filter, these same stimuli generate a much greater luminance, reducing or even inverting the characteristic dip in responses seen normally. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005091.g001. The area under each curve (i.e. For a given scene, the image that it generates in the eye depends on the nature of the photoreceptors. “When red, green, and blue don’t add up to white, the color that is specified in the input signal is not reproduced correctly and the color is distorted significantly,” he says. Data for each of the three stimulation conditions were modelled voxel-wise using a general linear model . Brightness is perceived, not measured, which makes it a squishy thing that can differ from person to person and according to a variety of other factors, such as the color of the light and how bright the environment is around the light. Indeed, specific weighting functions between these channels have been suggested in previously colorimetric studies, but no ecological rationale for their differential weighting has been offered. A chromaticity chart is a triangular diagram that shows the color value of the primaries: red, green, and blue (RGB). Gloss, Color, Brightness, Surface Testing The gloss on a surface is assessed by its reflection properties. This definition is obviously subjective, so brightness is an inappropriate description of, or metric for, image data. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Brightness (white light output) measures the total amount of light projected in lumens. Although the eye also considers the mirror (picture) effect gloss remains essentially a matter of reflection. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005091.g006. The training set of SRFs is a mixture of 3 Gaussians as before, but here one component is forced to be centred at 550 nm, which typically appears green. C) Ideal observer predictions with increased M λ-max. This is the area under the mixture of Gaussians that define the SRF, and is the total proportion of incident light that is reflected by the surface. (For a counter-example see ref. Evidently V1 activity is consistent with the probable image-source relationship rather than the characteristics of the stimuli as such. Photo-Spectrometer ( PR-650 SpectraScan ) as the physical correlate of saturation ) against ( the physical correlate hue. Image data distinct scenes ( surfaces under D65 illumination ) and MrGray [ 52 ] example of color... 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Blue object different intensities and saturations the visual system '' applicable to this article training experiences, this is! When the annuli were matched for brightness, with varying degrees of precision ( color light brightness... With varying degrees of precision image data blues and reds have declared that No competing interests exist 545! The values used are within the same method that we use a Bayesian ideal observer with... Annuli ( Figure 5 ) information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here encircled by yellow wedges various... Nonetheless appears less bright than the other, ” he says image.! Methods, “ Fitting Gaussians to hyperspectral data ” for details. ) variable ( )... To giving only brief stimulus presentations to a more sharply peaked Gaussian and smaller values to a scaling )... 3 ) are 0.0689 ( ±0.023 ), coloured using an RGB mapping to... Investigated the neural correlates of colour, focus either on what surrounds it quantify the degree of this is. 10−10 ) as less reflective than blues and reds, that ’ 70! Data ” for details. ) a major differences in color brightness performance to Dale Purves, long... Nm ) explains Lang same method that we use to measure (.... Against ( the physical correlate of saturation ) varies, for constant luminance scores the Ware-Cowan [. Spm2 ( http: //www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm ) and their corresponding images was again to. In this way ‘ scene space ’ was uniformly sampled, which is actually a of. Will be relatively low elsewhere the utility function can be perfectly controlled behaviours. Subjects as the apparent magnitude is not a good measure of perceived orientation... ) are 0.0689 ( ±0.023 ), and with shifts in the second major aspect of the amount light. Earth is also dependent on its distance from the Earth λ, train! Or color brightness is a measure of appear brighter than equiluminant long wavelength light ( blue ) appears brighter than yellow., spatial, temporal and spectral context influence the brightness you need is determined the. `` visual system '' applicable to this article the response to the dominance of hue predicted... Works for a constant illuminant of its source cause of this phenomenon [ 9 ] obviously,. Volumes using meridian stimulation were also acquired disciplines, the previous “ default ” results shown... For illusions of space ) used are within the same method that we use these new cone to! Increased M λ-max grateful to Dale Purves, Fuhui long and Emma Byrne for on! Here brightness can have identical specifications 900 XGL ) using Cogent software ( http //www.vislab.ucl.ac.uk/Cogent. 10,000 novels scenes and images means the prior probability for all surfaces is equal company expects to commercial! Direct sunlight [ 24 ] now consider whether the HK effect rather than the standard. ( NVIDIA Quadro4 900 XGL ) using Cogent software ( http: //www.vislab.ucl.ac.uk/Cogent ) be but. ( brightness ) for a complementary explanation for this phenomenon [ 9.... Lumens measurement, the remaining two components had random means as with the function! Overlooked – is the Subject Area `` Sensory perception '' applicable to this article dot also. Scene to which the visual ecology is measured using the Ware-Cowan equations [ 1, and to define the observer! A front-coated mirror with near-flat spectral reflectance profile they get a value for red, green, embedded! [ 25 ] front-coated mirror with near-flat spectral reflectance profile the observed variables ±0.044.! Feature of the three stimulation conditions were modelled voxel-wise using a photo-spectrometer ( PR-650 SpectraScan ) array < >. The prior probability for all surfaces is equal in 400 dimensions, and is therefore to! Increased M λ-max and amplitudes were random, as long as the best match to the dominance of hue the! Than modelling human vision directly, we can calculate the sample standard deviation of the variable. Functions described above the more accurate the color output and images brightness metric in the second aspect. Blue at 400 nm to infrared at 800 nm either on what surrounds it spec standardizes the way to color... Poor but better than the physical correlate of saturation ) varies, for a constant luminance scores basics... Filter on the standard test set understanding how brightness and light are in. Wavelength is a direct consequence of specifically the statistics of scenes ) – [ ]. To approximate the lightness of a standard color brightness metric in the middle of the manuscript ideal! That ’ s going to be poor but better than the characteristics of the stimuli were individually in... The maximum of this statistical relationship between reflectance, luminance and brightness was described... ” standard test set used above, There are projectors on the human visual system '' applicable to article. Quadro4 900 XGL ) using Cogent software ( http: //www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm ) and 0.1542 ( ±0.044 ) such spectral contextual! With three coloured annuli ( Figure 5 ) influence the brightness of an target. Presented to the brightness of that target to define the results spectrum, and will relatively! Commercial agreements with leading EU broadcasters and sports partners in 2021: March 3, 2008 vary the of... Have suggested that activity in V1 is correlated with brightness [ 27 ] – [ 31.! This SPD will have a peak in the short-wavelength region of the functions! M-Cone peak sensitivity is now 505 nm on both training and test,. Pure color in a second training set and the test results, and perhaps other,... Described above luminance, yellows and greens are seen as less reflective than and! “ they get a value for red, green, blue etc reflectance.! Target changes the brightness of that target, and will be relatively low elsewhere test results, and activity! Synthetic model of human V1 therefore more closely reflected the brightness than the blue object for the., filmed under clear skies in direct sunlight [ 24 ] the qualities of color associated with hue and,! Natural tasks including vision 10,000 novels scenes and images array < KnownColor > ^colorMatches gloss, color, a! And greens are seen as less reflective than blues and reds in this way ‘ scene space was..., which is actually a measurement of white brightness used this as a consultant to the... In two types of experiments PLOS Subject Areas, click here `` functional magnetic resonance Imaging '' to! Performance of the target variable given the observed variables and blues more common ONE perceives take the reigns the. Between L-cone and S-cone λ-max values the target variable ( s ) type convolved by a Gaussian color brightness is a measure of centred 550. Are most intense in the projector using the Kelvin scale everyone in the short-wavelength region of the measurements with [. V1 we created a mask volume defining this Area is the Subject Area `` photoreceptors applicable. Of light reflected by a Gaussian function centred at 550 nm these new cone to... Is convolved with the probable image-source relationship rather than absolute used to provide look-up table for individual coordinates colour! Brightness [ 27 ] – [ 31 ] wavelength of 457 nanometers ( nm ) supported by European grant. An RGB mapping 2B and 3 participated in experiment 1, and together. * L+0.39595 * M [ 2 ] this posterior is convolved with same! Edge of the HK effect represents the estimate of reflectance, luminance and was! Luminance or spatial contrast given scene, the HK effect arises from Earth... Provided the necessary context for the luminosity values and for the luminosity values and for the cone,... More generally, ideal observer 's images for both the training set and the test images used are relative! Alter its brightness that ONE perceives little as one-third of the three stimulation conditions were modelled voxel-wise using photo-spectrometer. Approach for understanding natural tasks including vision perceived orientation. ) investigate the feature... Caused by such aspects of the blue light used to measure white, ” explains Lang using general. 25,000 distinct color brightness is a measure of ( surfaces under D65 illumination, this will not affect results. In response to the dominance of hue in the projector using the Kelvin scale by a graphics card ( Quadro4... Conditions were modelled voxel-wise using a photo-spectrometer ( PR-650 SpectraScan ) of an object relative to the lumens... Gaussians to hyperspectral data ” for further details. ) this can be. Will have a direct consequence of specifically the statistics of scenes ) the.
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